macOS Application Development
- 1 Setting Up Your Development Environment for macOS
- 2 Developing Your Application
- 2.1 Using Frameworks in Mac Apps
- 2.2 Exception Handling
- 2.3 Documentation for Mac Libraries
- 3 Deploying Your Final macOS Application
- 4 macOS Topics
- 5 See Also
- 6 Code Examples
You can use RAD Studio to create macOS applications, and you can use your Mac as the required intermediate platform for iOS apps.
From the hardware point of view, in addition to the development PC, you need a Mac connected with the development computer (where RAD Studio is installed); for example, using a local area network (LAN). See FireMonkey Platform Prerequisites for a list of system requirements, both for your development PC and for the Mac. See also Working with a Mac and a PC.
The Delphi compiler for macOS 64-bit is DCCOSX64.
Setting Up Your Development Environment for macOS
- Physical Connection: Ensure that RAD Studio can connect with the target Mac:
- Click Test Connection in the Connection Profile Manager panel.
- However, if the macOS app does not have an assigned connection profile, and you attempt to perform an operation that requires a connection profile, the IDE displays the following message:
A connection profile is required for this operation but has not been assigned.
Would you like to assign or create a profile now?
- Then the IDE guides you through the necessary steps in creating a connection profile. On the Platform Properties dialog, you can assign an existing profile to the target platform, or select Add New to create a new connection profile to assign to the target platform instead.
- Platform Assistant: On the Mac, install the Platform Assistant and run it.
- Target Platform: In the IDE, set the target platform. When you create a Delphi or C++Builder multi-device application, RAD Studio sets Win32 as the default target platform.
- To change the target platform to macOS:
- Right-click the Target Platforms node in the Project Manager.
- Click Add Platform macOS 64-bit.
- The macOS option is unavailable if the application uses VCL (VCL does not support macOS).
- Connection Profile: In the IDE, create and assign a connection profile (a group of settings that characterize the connection to your target machine; see Creating and Testing a Connection Profile on the Development PC).
Developing Your Application
Using Frameworks in Mac Apps
This section describes some aspects of multi-device application development that are specific to the macOS target platform. For general multi-device development documentation, see Developing Multi-Device Applications.
Some RTL units that provide basic functionality are common for Mac and Windows, such as System.pas or System.SysUtils.pas.
See also MacOS C RTL.
VCL (not available for Mac)
The VCL is available only on Windows (32-bit or 64-bit).
Mac Objective-C Frameworks (Macapi)
The RTL contains a number of units that provide Delphi interfaces to Mac frameworks written in Objective-C. These units are scoped with Macapi (from Mac API) and typically located in the
/source directory of your product installation:
The FireMonkey framework relies on some of these units.
For help on these API, see the Apple documentation at Mac Developer Library.
Resolving Ambiguities: 'Byte' and 'System::Byte' on macOS
Both Delphi and the OSX SDK headers define the Byte type. Thus, you might run into ambiguity errors when using plain Byte.
For example, the following code:
#include <System.hpp> DynamicArray<Byte> AByteArray;
results in error E2015 Ambiguity between 'function1' and 'function2' (C++) when compiled for macOS:
Error E2015 t.cpp 2: Ambiguity between 'Byte' and 'System::Byte' *** 1 errors in Compile ***
To resolve the issue, you should explicitly specify the definition of Byte that you want to use, that is, either of the following:
For example, the following code should compile with no errors:
#include <System.hpp> DynamicArray<System::Byte> AByteArray;
- Floating-point exceptions
- Integer divide exceptions
- CTRL+C, CTRL+BREAK
- Privileged instruction violations
- Memory access violations
If you use assembly routines, then see PC-Mapped Exceptions, Unwinding Assembly Routines.
Processing of Mach Exceptions
For Mach exceptions, the RTL from System.SysUtils creates a thread that listens for exception notifications from the operating system. You just have to include in your code the System.SysUtils unit. When the listening thread receives a Mach exception notification, it transforms the Mach exception into the corresponding Pascal language exception derived from EExternal, as appropriate, and raises/throws the Pascal exception to the user thread that caused the original Mach exception.
If you want to directly work with Mach exceptions, then be aware that, by including System.SysUtils, a dedicated thread is started for listening Mach exceptions. You can investigate the System.Internal.MachExceptions.pas source to make sure you do not interfere with the RTL.
CTRL+C and CTRL+BREAK
For CTRL+C and CTRL+BREAK, the application installs signal handlers. (macOS does not create Mach exceptions for CTRL+C and CTRL+BREAK.)
The SIGINT and SIGQUIT handlers are in conformity with the standards that define the way shell applications must treat CTRL+C and CTRL+BREAK.
We strongly recommend that you do not override the SIGINT and SIGQUIT handlers. However, if you do this, you do not receive EControlC and EQuit exceptions.
Documentation for Mac Libraries
You can obtain the macOS documentation at the macOS Developer Library. RAD Studio does not provide help for the libraries you might need to use on the Mac.
You can also register as a Mac developer (free of charge) at the Mac Dev Center. Being a registered member of the Apple Developer Program enables you to distribute apps in the App Store (this is along with other requirements, such as a developer certificate and a provisioning profile). For more information, see http://developer.apple.com/programs/mac/gettingstarted/
Deploying Your Final macOS Application
Before each release of your macOS application, you should check that every setting is properly configured. See Preparing a macOS Application for Deployment.
To self-distribute your macOS application you can simply build your application and distribute the resulting binaries to your clients. See Distributing Applications Outside the Mac App Store in the Apple documentation for more information.
If you want to publish your application on the Mac App Store, however, you must follow some additional steps. See Submit your application to the Mac App Store for detailed steps.
- Prepare Your Development Environment (macOS):
- Write and Run Your macOS Application:
- Building a macOS Hello World Console Application
- Shared Libraries for macOS
- Fullscreen Mode on macOS
- PC-Mapped Exceptions
- Using the macOS Notification Center
- Considerations for Multi-Device Applications
- Deploy Your Application:
- Joining the Apple Developer Program
- Provisioning a macOS Application
- Configuring an Application Entry on iTunes Connect to Wait for Upload
- Preparing a macOS Application for Deployment
- Sandboxing Your macOS Application
- Sandboxing Your macOS Application Manually
- App Sandboxing with InterBase ToGo for macOS
- Non-sandboxed InterBase applications for macOS
- Submitting Your App to the Mac App Store
- Developing Multi-Device Applications
- Differences between Windows and macOS
- iOS Mobile Application Development
- Debugging Multi-Device Applications
- Working with Native and Custom FireMonkey Styles
- FireMonkeyPlatform Prerequisites
- Migrating VCL Applications to FireMonkey
- Apple Developer Center
- Mac Dev Center
- macOS Developer Library
- Introduction to Codesigning for Mac
- Submitting Your Mac App to the App Store
- Building for the Mac app store
- Getting Started with Windows and Mac Application Development (E-Learning Series)