# Energy and Entropy: A Dynamic Duo

Energy is UniversalMYSTERIOUS INVISIBLE ENERGYInternal energyBrownian motionCALORIC: A SEDUCTIVE IDEAENERGY TRANSFERS: WORK, HEAT, MASSWorkHeatMaterial transferIMAGINED SYSTEMS WITHRigid bodiesFrictionless surfacesDILUTE GAS MODEL: IDEAL GASENERGY DEFINITIONS, UNITSENERGY TRANSFORMATION EXAMPLESEnergy is Not EnoughTHE WORK-ENERGY THEOREMConservation of energyInadequacy of work-energy theoremHEAT DEFINED IN TERMS OF WORKENERGY IS NOT SUFFICIENTDISSIPATION, ENERGY SPREADING, EQUITYEnergy exchanges & equityCarnot cycle & reversibilityAN OVERVIEW OF TEMPERATUREInternational temperature scaleWhat is temperature?CONNECTING ENERGY & ENTROPYClausius’s main contributionsClausius entropy & entropy increaseSystems not in equilibriumDisgregationEntropy as missing informationConfusion about entropyEntropy: Energy’s Needed PartnerCOMPOSITE SYSTEMSENTROPY & PROBABILITYWhy probabilities?Boltzmann, probability & entropyENTROPY VS. ENERGY GRAPHSConcavityReflections on the entropy vs. energy curveEquity revisitedBOLTZMANN RESERVOIR & PROBABILITYBoltzmann reservoirBoltzmann factorStatistical mechanicsHELMHOLTZ FREE ENERGYUnderstanding free energyAvailable energy and exergyAvailable energy with finite reservoirsEntropic forceGases, Solids, PolymersIDEAL GAS SACKUR-TETRODE ENTROPYQuantum ideal gasesNONIDEAL GASES & THE VIRIAL EXPANSIONLiquid-vapour phase transitionClausius–Clapeyron equationVan der Waals gasVirial expansionMIXING ENTROPY FUNCTIONMixing or expansion?Mixing entropy functionGibbs paradox & informationThe role of informationMODELS OF SOLIDSEinstein modelDebye solidPARAMAGNETS & FERROMAGNETSIdeal paramagnetNegative temperatureFerromagnetsRUBBER BANDSRubber band experimentModel of a rubber bandNUCLEAR BINDING ENERGY, FISSION, FUSIONJARZYNSKI FREE ENERGY EQUALITYExamples of the Jarzynski equalityRadiation & PhotonsEM RADIATION & TEMPERATUREBLACKBODY RADIATIONTHE PHOTON GASWhat is a photon gas?Photon gas equations & graphsPhoton gas processesKIRCHHOFF’S & PLANCK’S LAWSIncandescent lampsCosmic microwave background radiationHawking radiation from black holesWhat you see is not always what you getNumerical EntropyNUMERICAL ENTROPYENTROPY OF ELEMENTS & COMPOUNDSTHIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICSNuances of entropyThree statements of the third lawMetastable states and residual entropyComparison of the third and other laws of thermodynamicsThe third law and model systemsENTROPY UNITS, DIMENSIONLESS ENTROPYEntropy’s weird dimensionsDimensionless entropyNumericsPhysical interpretation of tempergyLanguage & Philosophy of ThermodynamicsTHE LANGUAGE OF WORK & HEATThing vs processAnalogy: Bank transactions &More about defining heating energyIsothermal, reversible volume changesWork and heat for friction processesLINKS BETWEEN THERMODYNAMICS LAWSThermal equilibrium & zeroth lawHeating & direction of energy flowLinkage between first and second lawsTHE LANGUAGE OF ENTROPYMore about metaphorsWorking, Heating, CoolingTHE VALUE OF CYCLESWhat is a cycle?How Clausius used cyclesImplications of cycles for entropyPV & TS diagramsEXAMPLES OF CYCLESEfficiency measuresReversible & irreversible Otto cyclesReversible & irreversible Stirling cyclesIrreversible Carnot engineIRREVERSIBILITY & 2ND LAW EFFICIENCYCOMBINED-CYCLE HEAT ENGINESLORD KELVIN’S HEAT PUMPCOOLING & CRYOGENICSCooling techniquesJoule-Thomson processLiquid helium-4Helium-3Adiabatic demagnetisationSanctity of the 2nd Law of ThermodynamicsMAXWELL’S DEMONStatistical nature of the 2nd lawThe Szilard engineMeasurement, memory, erasureMaxwell’s demon, efficiency, powerTHERMODYNAMICS & COMPUTATIONMORE ABOUT FLUCTUATIONSSmoluchowski’s trapdoorFeynman ratchet and pawlBROWNIAN RATCHETSFluctuation phenomenaAsymmetry & flashing Brownian ratchetOther Brownian ratchetsBrownian ratchets & the 2nd lawATTEMPTS TO VIOLATE THE 2ND LAWPerpetual motion machinesChallenges to the 2nd lawThermal electrons in a magnetic fieldThermal electrons in a capacitorTheory of air column in gravitational fieldSpontaneous pressure differencesReflections & ExtensionsREFLECTIONSEXTENSIONSLieb-Yngvason formulation of thermodynamicsQuantum mechanics and the second lawAppendices: Mathematical IdentitiesDERIVATIVES & GIBBS-DUHEM EQUATIONSubject IndexAuthor Index